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Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS

Childhood routine immunization coverage in children less than 5 years in Southern Nigeria: A descriptive cross-sectional survey

Noel E Uwaibi1 , Sunday Omozuwa2

1Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.

For correspondence:-  Noel Uwaibi   Email:  noel.uwaibi@gmail.com   Tel:  +2347031380705

Received: 11 August 2020        Accepted: 20 August 2020        Published: 23 September 2020

Citation: Uwaibi NE, Omozuwa S. Childhood routine immunization coverage in children less than 5 years in Southern Nigeria: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. Trop J Med Dent Pract 2020; 1(1):7-15 doi: https://doi.org/10.47227/tjmdp/v1i1.2

© 2020 The author(s).
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..

Abstract

Background: The ultimate goal of immunization programmes is to reduce the incidence of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) by attaining high levels of routine immunization coverage with potent vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the immunization coverage and factors affecting routine childhood immunization coverage in primary health facilities, Benin city Edo state.
Methods: Following ethical clearance from the Ethical Committee of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 640 mothers/caregivers with children 0 – 23 months of age was carried out. Data on immunization coverage and factors affecting routine childhood immunization was collected using face-to-face interview with pre-tested interviewer questionnaire. Relationship between dependent and independent variables was determined using logistic regression analysis, at 95% confidence interval and p-values level less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Of the 640 participants, 625 (97.7%) presented with their vaccination cards while 15 (2.3%) did not even though they had them. 630 (98.4%) of the children received BCG, first doses of OPV, PENTA and PCV while 118 (72.4%) and 119 (73.0%) received measles and yellow fever vaccines respectively. 545 (85.2%) children were completely immunized for age. The determinants of immunization coverage were child’s age (OR 12.58 95% CI 6.481-24.4) and place of delivery OR 19.0 95% CI 10.50- 35.67)
Conclusion: Majority of the children were completely immunized for age and immunization coverage. Socio-demographic factors that influenced immunization status included age of the index child, place of delivery and level of education of the caregiver

Keywords: Routine immunization, coverage, Primary Health Care cente

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